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Game 1869

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 Game 1869

Start of the Game

At the start of the game you have the following possibilities regarding selection and entry:

Control

You can select whether you wish to play with the mouse or via the keyboard. (Mouse operation is recommended).

New or Old Game

If you begin a new game, press the space bar. In order to load an old game. press J. You can then select the game from previously stored games.

Number of Players

Enter the number of players. Up to four players may take part

Name of player

Here you can enter your name. You will also be addressed by this name by the player name coming up in the game. It goes without saying that such pseudonyms as Capt Hook are also permissible.

Sex

In order to ensure that you are correctly addressed by merchants, dockyard owners and bank directors you should state your sex here.

Name of Firm

Now you should give your rapidly flourishing and growing firm an attractive name.

Location of Firm

Select where the principal town of your firm is to be. In this town you will have your company office and also your first store. Each of the five towns for selection have their advantages and disadvantages which will become evident as you progress.


When all players have completed their details you will be asked whether all details are to your satisfaction. If this is so, then there is nothing in the way to begin a thrilling and entertaining game.

The Ship Auction

For more than one player 1869 begins with a ship auction. Many favourable bargains can be had here, but care is needed as many a player has ruined himself at the start by aggressive over-bidding.

A ship is called up by the auctioneer at a minimum price. Each player can now participate in bidding by clicking his players name. Thereby the offer increases by fixed values. The name of the player offering the most at this time is displayed. If there is no more bidding for a certain time, then the highest bidder receives the addition.

The auction can be speeded up with the ESC key. The highest bidder will receive the addition immediately and the auctioneer continues with the next ship. If there are no bids for a ship then there is no sale.

An auction also takes place when a player has ordered a ship but is unable to make payment. The completely built ship which has not been paid for is released by the shipyard for auction. Some time before the date of the auction each player receives notification enabling him to be at the location of the auction in time.

You may only participate in an auction if you are present at the location of the auction either on a ship or in a branch office ensuring of course that on this ship or in this branch office sufficient funds are available. Auctions prove again and again to offer a popular opportunity to acquire cheap and good ships.

Fast Entry for the Impatient

Successful shipowners distinguish themselves by showing patience, control, and readiness to take risks and the instinct to know the right moment for action. However, for the very impatient player we have a few tips for a quick entry to the game.

First go to the shipyard and buy a second hand ship. When the ship is yours, go to the tavern, not to drink of course, but to hire a Crew for the ship. The landlord of the tavern is pleased to give assistance. The quality of the crew should match the quality of the ship. It takes a few days for the landlord to drum up the crew. In the meantime you may take money from the warehouse to the ship since merchandise always has to be paid for on the spot. Since it is not your intention to go on pleasure trips you are urgently advised to call at the office in order to purchase goods. Only with a relevant cargo in the ships hold does she become a trading vessel.

Do not go on excessively long voyages to start with. Call only at safe ports and trade merely with safe goods. Your ship should always be fully loaded since half filled ships can ruin a company in a short period of time.

Game Aims

In the single player mode it is the aim of your game to be included in the "List of the Best" after a certain number of years. In the multi player mode there is the possibility of a "knockout" victory if all competitors have been eliminated. Winning can also be defined as the player who has the strongest company after the end of playing time.

The main chart is the central control element of the trading simulation in 1869. From here you manage your world spanning company, direct ships and enlarge your trade empire,

By simply clicking on sections of the chart you get comfortably and quickly into the individual action screens. The chart consists of a large main field which depicts one of the four continents of the world and different control parts, the importance of which are explained in the following.

Name of Firm

This is the name of the active firm which is taking its turn during the present move of the game.

Calendar

The actual date may be taken from this calendar.

Clicking the calendar finishes one's current move. With only one player participation, the calendar flicks to the next event. When there are several players the players move in turn. When all players have completed their moves, the calendar goes on to the next event. Now it is the turn of the player whom the occurring event concerns. Subsequently all the other players may participate in the game.

There are the following events: A ship has put into harbour, a ship has been completely rebuilt or repaired, a hired crew has come aboard or a crew is completely rested after a break in the harbour.

Ship's Control

If one clicks the ship with the left mouse key one enters the ship dispatch mode.

If one clicks the ship with the right mouse key the ship status screen appears with the information and sets possibilities with regard to the condition of the ship, cargo and crew.

Actual Capital in Cash

Here you see at a glance how much actual cash is at your disposal currently. This includes all cash in branch offices and on ships, Each player begins with a capital of $7,000.

World Map

By clicking the relevant continent the view in the main field changes to that desired continent.

There are four continents, namely North America/South America, Europe/North Africa, Africa/ South Asia and Asia/Australia. The views overlap a little to permit optimum operations.

Bank

By clicking the symbol you can enter the Bank and take out new loans or extend existing ones.

Records

Clicking this symbol leads to a memorial tablet on which the eternal records of crossings are retained. It is the dream of every captain and shipowner of course to see the name of his ship on this tablet.

Balance sheet

This is an extensive listing of the firms expenditure. It offers a means of drawing comparisons between individual firms.

Options

Here you are given the possibility to load or store positions in the game, to switch on or off messages and to end the game.

Ship

This symbol indicates a ship lying in the port which is available.

Branch Office

If one has a branch office or head office in the port the relevant port symbol is indicated by a flag.

Port

If there is no ship of one's own, branch office or head office in the port clicking of this symbol causes a view of the port to appear as well as the information window showing the name of the current town, its main export goods and the political state of the country.

By clicking on a port, with the mouse, where you have either a ship or a branch office, you get to the office.

If click such a port with the right mouse key, a symbol listing appears with up to four possibilities of selection.

Info

The information panel belonging to the port appears.

Beer Jug

Enables you to visit the tavern in the port where one can hire crews and also pick up some useful tips

Anchor

This symbol leads to the shipyard. The symbol only appears in the case of ports with a shipyard.

Crate

Allows you to go to the store or the head office. The symbol appears only in the case of ports where you have a warehouse or head office.

Dialogue Operation

With 1869 you need not make any entries via the keyboard. All actions, dialogues and transactions can be made using the mouse. During the course of the game you conduct discussions and negotiations with different persons. You may select from a number of sentences that which suits your taste and intentions. This means of communication applies throughout the entire game.

On some occasions the dialogue concerns amounts of money or quantities of goods. Such sentences always begin with three dots (for instance "How much would 200 crates of textiles cost me" ) Here you adjust the quantity or the amount by clicking. If you click such a sentence with the left mouse key, the set quantity or amount is increased. By clicking with the right mouse key the quantity or the amount is reduced. Therefore, the rule is always: Quantities or amounts are increased with the left mouse key and reduced with the right mouse key.

In order to confirm purchases, sales or other transactions you always select a sentence beginning with "OK". For instance if you wish to confirm a purchase you click the sentence, "OK load everything." The set quantity of goods will then be taken to the ship and the purchasing price will be debited.

If you have several sources of money in a port (for instance a ship and a warehouse) you can enter the money source from which the money is to be debited with the following sentence: "I have $3000 at my disposal in the warehouse".

Here again the following rule applies: up with the left mouse button and down with the right button.

Since this kind of operation remains constant throughout the game you quickly become competent in the games methodology.

The Shipyard

Your first steps in the game should take you to a shipyard except if you have already bought a ship at the auction. At the shipyard you can purchase a second hand ship or order a new ship. Remember, second hand ships are somewhat cheaper than new ones and your budget is not very high at the beginning. Even if the idea of a new ship seems attractive you should take into consideration that you have to purchase goods, hire a crew and that your competitors may already be making a profit during your waiting time by using a second hand ship with a shorter delivery.

Ships can also be repaired in the shipyard. Depending on necessity barnacle growth can be removed from the hull (scraping), the hull can be painted and sealed, the rigging or steam engine overhauled and the ship generally serviced this being the most expensive option. Depending on the extent of repair work this will take a few days. During a repair the ship is not at your disposal and the relevant ship symbol disappears. Also only ships without cargo may be taken in for repair.

If you wish to buy a second hand ship or choose to have a new ship built you can select the desired ship from the model catalogue. Second hand ships must be fully paid for immediately in cash and they will be placed at your disposal after four days.

For a new ship a down payment of 25% of the purchase price is due immediately.

The remaining 75% of the purchase price can be paid to the shipyard at any time prior to completion of building. If the total purchase price is not paid by the completion date, weekly interest will be charged. In this instance caution should be exercised as the ship is released by the shipyard for auction if the interest exceeds the down payment made. However, up to the date of the auction the original purchaser is offered the possibility at any time to pay the outstanding amount.

When buying new ships you can trade-in your old ships. If you finds that the sales price for an old ship is higher than the cost of the new ship, then the ship yard will pay the excess into the next available money source. If there is a warehouse in the town it is paid into that, otherwise it goes to a ship.

If one has selected a new ship, she can be formally named. A heraldic figure appears on the screen in which you can enter the name of the ship. The first letter of the name must not be a zero symbol. If you press the ENTER key without naming the ship the purchasing procedure is called off. If the name has been entered the down payment is required to be made at the office immediately. But it is also possible to withdraw from the purchase at the office.

A ship which is no longer required can be sold to the shipyard. However, this can only be done when there is a second ship in the port or a new ship ordered from the shipyard.

In addition to large and famous shipyards there are also some smaller shipyards. Some of these only carry out repairs or offer smaller types of ship. You can also sell ships to these yards. These are kept on the books as second-hand vessels for a period, after which they are scrapped. As happens so often in life, repairs at the smaller shipyards are often cheaper than the big and well known dockyards which are over burdened with orders.

In The Tavern

As a respectable shipowner, one does not visit the tavern, to drink grog. With business in mind you can hire a ships crew from the landlord. This means that if you have the choice you also have the worry. The question is should you hire top people with correspondingly high wage requirements or a normal crew or even a low paid crew who mix up port and starboard? The scope is wide and this is where your instinct comes in. Generally the motto "The right crew for the right ship" applies. Even a top crew cannot perform miracles with a ship that is half-wrecked and a lot of landlubbers will not achieve record times even with the proudest clipper. But do make sure that you are able to afford the monthly wages as without pay even the most reliable crew will revert to mutiny.

By clicking the desired crew with the right mouse key the confirmation sentence "OK, I take the people" appears on the screen. By selecting this sentence you are hiring the crew. The landlord will then inform you in how many days the new crew will arrive on your ship.

The landlord also provides information regarding the cost of a branch office in this port. If you wish to open a new branch office you may do this here and now.

Additionally you can transfer money in the tavern from one ship to another. For this purpose you select first the source ship and then the receiving ship, enter the relevant amount and confirm as follows: "OK, I will send the money to the..".

Since many people from all over the world call into port taverns and as alcohol makes people very talkative a lot of useful information comes to the landlords ears. For a round of beers he might perhaps let out some secrets to you.

Branch Offices and Head Office

In the town which you select as your starting point at the beginning of the game the head office of your firm is located. The head office and possibly further branch offices are marked on the main chart by a flag.


At the head office or the branch offices goods can be stored and then loaded onto a ship. Money can be transferred from a ship to the warehouse and vice versa.

The appearance of head office, depends on the value of a company. The bigger the firm the more sumptuous the head office, but unfortunately the same applies the other way around. The head office of a company can neither be moved nor closed.

You may establish branch offices in any, port. However, a warehouse also swallows up running costs. The costs of establishing a branch office are dependant on the chosen location. At strategically important points establishing and maintaining a warehouse is very expensive in most cases. But a warehouse offers the advantage that one is always informed of the kind and price of the offered and required goods in the relevant port.

Every warehouse with the exception of head office can be closed down as required.

At the beginning of the game one should proceed with caution when considering the opening of new branches as the costs of them are high. Consider the location of a new warehouse very carefully and observe the cost/ yield factor.

Selling and Purchasing in the Office

Since it is certain that you are not sending your mercantile fleet across the oceans of the world for the fun of it, you should visit the office frequently. This is the place of transshipment of goods in a port and here all purchases and sales of goods are dealt with.

You will see on the board which goods are required or offered by the dealer. The price either which he demands or offers will vary as not every dealer pays the same for goods and a comparison is always worthwhile. For urgently required merchandise a high additional premium is often offered. On the other hand it can happen that a dealer does not need a full ship's cargo of a certain kind of goods. This happens regularly in smaller ports.

When you offer a dealer goods he will first tell you the required quantity and the possible premium. This quantity is automatically entered with the sentence "How much do you pay for.....?" If you enter the sentence "OK I will sell the goods" without changing the quantity, then you sell the dealer the quantity he requires and for which he may pay the premium. Of course one can also sell to him the rest as long as he offers a reasonable price.

Generally you can sell anything to a dealer. He will, however, pay a minimum price for non required goods which is below the cost price in most cases. If possible you should avoid such loss-making business.

You can also purchase goods from the dealer, but only the merchandise that he has on offer. If you have several ships or one warehouse in the port you can select where the goods are to be delivered to. The dealer always offers the quantity of goods first which corresponds to the maximum loading capacity of the ship or to have maximum available capital. Naturally one can buy less. If you do not have enough money on the ship for the desired goods you can also pay for these from a second ship in the port or from a warehouse in this town, in some offices notes are displayed on the counter. If you click any such note you will receive special orders or passenger conveyance. Some of the special orders are very favourable but they also entail great risks (For instance: supply of arms to countries at war)

If you have a ship fitted with cabins you may convey passengers. In this case a group of passengers may want to be taken to a certain port. These people will disembark only in the port of destination. Since costs will be incurred for supplying food for passengers, you should not arrange any sightseeing tours but head for the port of destination as quickly as possible.

Route Planning

Once the ship has been loaded you should send her to the port of destination. But what is the good of the most valuable cargo if it cannot be sold. In order to send a ship to a definite port you have to enter the ship dispatch mode. For this purpose you click the large ship on the main chart by using the left mouse key

The ship selection menu appears giving you the names of your ships as well as the status symbol, the location and technical conditions.

The status symbols provide information regarding the availability of the ship and crew.

Their meaning is as follows:

Ship under sail: Ship is available
Hammer: Ship is being repaired
Ship's hull: Ship is being built
Wave: Ship is in transit
Men with question mark: No crew on board
Men with luggage: New crew still to come

Only available ships may be selected The names of non-available ships always appear in the selection menu in red print. When you have selected the desired ship a wild rose is shown instead of the usual mouse indicator (dispatch indicator) and the departure port is indicated by a rotating square. Additionally the navigation points can be seen. All selected ports and navigation points are always marked with a rotating yellow rectangle. Two of the sea navigation points are put on the land within the chart, namely the navigation point at Cape Horn and the Suez Canal.

Dispatch indicator (click with upper left hand corner)
Navigation Point (not marked)
Selected Navigation Point
Selected Port or Port of Departure

If you click the port of destination by means of the left mouse key the temporary navigation points are selected simultaneously they are recognisable by yellow rotating markings. In the case of some routes it may happen that other ports are also marked. These ports serve as navigation points only as the ship will not put into port. By clicking the port of destination with the right mouse key you confirm the course and send the ship on her way. If a ship is on route she cannot be manipulated until she arrives at the port of destination.

The automatically set route, however will not always be the most favourable one. With the aid of weather and flow charts you will be able to make a decision regarding a better route. By clicking the last valid route point with the left mouse key all following points are cancelled. You can now enter all desired route points individually. Note: that a longer route with more favourable current is better than a short route with a strong counter current.

Steamships have a limited range since they have to refill the coal bunkers during the voyage. Therefore, you can only map out their route within relevant reach. On the other hand steamships are largely independent wind and dead calms and they are also some what faster than sailing ships.

When planning the route always take into consideration the weather and current charts as well as the seasons. Excessively long voyages cause reduction of the freight rates.

Furthermore, you should reckon with the possibility that your ship may get into a heavy storm resulting in serious damage or in the worst case she may even sink.

The extent of damage is shown in detail on the ship's status and the dispatch menu in the form of a percentage.

You must check on the condition of your ships regularly. Damaged ships result in unsatisfactory crossing times with correspondingly bad freight rates. In the case of iron ships you should check for barnacle growth regularly as excessive growth considerably slows down a ship. It is also recommended to arrange for a ship to be overhauled at a shipyard from time to time. The costs incurred are in most cases compensated by freight rates increasing afterwards. Do not attempt to save money unwisely.

Ships Status

You access the ship's status by clicking the large ship in the main chart with the left mouse key. Thus you can inform yourself of the technical state and you can also control and manipulate the crew.

On the ship's status screen you will find information regarding the cargo and the cash carried on the ship. Furthermore. you will be informed about the current location of the ship. By clicking the ship hull you can access all your ships.

Check your cash flow at regular intervals. For planned purchases there must always be sufficient money in the ship's cash account if for instance you want to buy goods in Bombay, the money in the Liverpool head office does not help. Goods always have to be paid for from a ship or warehouse in the port where the purchase is effected.

But you must also avoid leaving too much money on a ship. The ship may sink in a storm and then money would be lost. It is therefore recommend to transfer the excess cash of profit yielding ships from time to time to a branch office or to head office. It is also possible in the tavern to transfer the excess money to another ship.

Technical State

In order to obtain exact information regarding the technical condition of a ship click the state key. You will receive detailed information regarding barnacle growth, the taking on of water, condition of rigging or steam engine etc. You should take special notice of this information before planning repair work. It does not make sense for example to generally overhaul an otherwise completely intact ship with barnacle growth. A cheaper and quicker scraping job would suffice in this case.

Crew Status

You access the crew status by clicking the crew key of the ship status screen. Thereby you can check and manipulate the crew of each ship, however the latter is only possible when a ship is at disposal.

Each ship has her own crew with their condition. ability and motivation directly affecting the ship's condition and speed. Within the crew control field you can obtain information regarding the vitality and experience as well as motivation of the crew. Furthermore, you can enter the amount of wages, alter the captains order and forecast a success premium.

A bar chart provides information indicating the vitality and experience of a crew. The upper bar identifies the vitality and the lower bar refers to experience. The longer the bar the more rested or experienced the crew

Vitality

The more vitality a crew has the better it performs. Caution! A badly exhausted crew may get the idea of putting an end to their suffering by mutiny.

Vitality is influenced by the length of a voyage, storms and by the captain's order. Do not deprive your crew of a relaxing break in the port after a long and stormy voyage. They will repay you by increased performance.

Experience

The experience of a crew plays a big role during storms. An experienced crew will master dangerous voyages for instance around Cape Horn. Additionally, ships with an experienced crew are less heavily damaged during storms, The experience of a crew also affects the speed of a ship.

Once a crew has mastered a storm or another difficult situation, their experience is enhanced. In this way a moderately reasonable crew can turn out to be a top crew.

When hiring a new crew the following rule should be applied: The more experienced a crew the higher are the wage demands. Therefore, you must make sure to select a crew to suit the ship.

Motivation

With the aid of the portrait you can determine the contentment or motivation of a ships crew. A smiling face indicates a happy crew. A grim faced crew is perhaps already thinking of mutiny. If instead of a portrait the window is closed then there is no crew on board.

Payment of Wages

The motivation of a crew is affected by the payment of wages. If one would rather fire a crew than re-motivate them one simply sets the payment on zero. Without payment of wages even the most loyal crew will not stay aboard. Members of the crew, however, who are still waiting to be paid off will not leave until the dues have been paid

Captain's Order

With the aid of the captain's order you can determine how hard the captain drives the crew and how fast sailing is to proceed. These settings affect the vitality.

If you set an order on "EASY" it means that the crew is faring well, they can take their time and have sufficient breaks. This humanitarian viewpoint will not affect the vitality.

With the setting "MEDIUM.' the crew has to achieve more, any breeze is used, additional sails are used so the work is hard. Sailing times are reduced but with the adoption of this view point vitality is decreased. Treat your crew to a break now and then.

If the ship sails under the order "HARD" the crew have to do their utmost, Sailing goes on day and night and the sails are not reefed even during storms. With this sweat and strain the crew's vitality is of course greatly affected and therefore, you should keep an eye on your ill treated crew.

Premium

In order to make sure that the men really drive the ship forward to achieve record times you can put up a premium. Every sailor can use additional money and they will make an almighty effort correspondingly. In the case of voyages with deadlines premiums are very high.

Always bear in mind that in order to achieve an optimum speed the condition of the ship and crew is decisive. Even the proudest clipper will not bring about record times when damaged nor can a completely exhausted crew achieve peak performances.

Historic Connections

Since 1869 incorporates actual historic events messages regularly appear they may bear a direct influence on the happenings of the game. The historic section of this handbook, therefore, may give you a decisive advantage over your competitors. Whilst your uninformed competitors may get entangled in the troubles of the American Civil War you will already have shifted your interests toward safer areas. Of course as a fair shipowner you should allow your co-players to gain an insight into this handbook. Astute business people, however, will mercilessly keep the handbook under lock and key.

Not all events have the same effect on the course of the game. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 causes a shortening of the voyage times to Asia which is a positive event indeed. On the other hand there was a sea blockade near Odessa during the Crimean War around 1854 coupled with the risk that ships may be captured. Accordingly this is a negative event which perhaps is only Positive for the risky arms trade within crisis areas.

Due to crisis and wars ports maybe closed temporarily. During a civil war there is the danger that warehouses will be raided and burned down. Above everything however, wars and crises affect the production and consumption of goods in a country.

Some newspapers reports concern technical developments or even inventions. Not all wars or clashes are reported in the papers as some of them are of local interest only. Prior to putting into harbour you should, therefore inform yourself about the active state of the country by using the information panel.

Options also offer the possibility to exclude newspaper reports. As before, the events will take place but they are no longer registered.

1869 represents a very accurate trade simulation as never seen before. We would, therefore, advise only historically well informed players to switch off the newspaper reports. Do not underestimate the effects of daily historic happenings on world trade.

The Bank

By clicking the coin symbol of the main chart you may visit the bank at any time. It is located in the town of the firms head office.

At the bank you may take out loans or pay back already existing loans. However you became credit worthy only when you provide securities such as ships, warehouses or cash. In the case of loan applications without adequate security bankers react very unfriendly. The maximum extent of a loan depends on the value of your securities.

You may pay off loans at any time before the due date. Since this enables you to save considerable interest you should, if possible repay loans as soon as possible. Loan repayments must always be effected by head office. Therefore you must make sure under all circumstances that there is sufficient money in the kitty of the head office.

Settlements of accounts are always dealt with On the 31st December of the current year. If a player is not solvent at this point in time then he must declare bankruptcy and is eliminated from the events of the game.

Therefore, be very careful with loans. The Balance Sheet screen provides an overview of existing loans.

Tax Regulations

As you might expect 1869 also includes unpopular tax regulations. The state requests you to pay up and you have to obey.

Taxes depends on the total tonnage of your merchant fleet and is based on the tax regulations of Great Britain in the 19th century. The Balance Sheet screen constantly provides an overview of the tax due for repayment.

Taxes become due for a whole year on the 31st December of the following year. For instance the taxes for the year 1854 have to be paid on the 31st December 1855. Debiting is effected automatically from the cash account at the due date. If you are unable to pay the taxes your firm has to declare bankruptcy and you will be eliminated from the game.


The Balance Sheet

The balance provides a survey regarding due dates of taxes and loans. Furthermore you can check your stock of goods and cash flow.

Keep an eye on turnover and development of the firm, You are given the choice to either quickly look at a graphical representation or a listing of figures. The representation of turnover and company development assists in a very good way to recognise economic tendencies. Moreover it permits direct comparisons with your competitors and you are able at any time to see how you are placed in the race for the distinction of greatest shipowner of the century.

Using cunning, dexterity and by knowing the tricks of the trade you have the chance to become the best shipowner of the century in history and to be included in the list of the elite.

The List of Records

If one of your ships manages to achieve a new best time for crossing on a record route it will be immortalised in the list of the fastest ships. This not only lifts the mood of the proud shipowner but it also increases the sales value of the ship. Providing circumstances are good one may possibly be able to sell the ship at a price which is higher than her original price.

Record times are also reported in the papers. These record times relate to all stored games.

Options (Loading and Storing)

The option screen offers possibilities such as loading, storing, new game or finish. In order to load a game status you have to click the desired name and select "LOADING". You can also cancel a game status.

In order to store a game status you click initially the first empty stop of the stairs. Now give the game status a name and click "Storing".

In this connection, too, you can exclude or include newspaper reports or leave 1869.

TIPS & TRICKS

In real business life and in this game too there are some golden rules which should be observed under all circumstances. Only in this way will one achieve the success hankered and way hoped for. Beyond that of course there are numerous tricks which help a business man on the road to success. Every successful trading tycoon has his own special tricks and knacks which he will not disclose. For all budding shipowners we want to reveal here some golden rules and tricks.

1869 makes available a wide field for experiments and strategies. Find your own personal tricks and try out these to see which is the best way to succeed.

Ten Golden Rules

Rule No 1: Always load ships fully. It is better to have a ship fully loaded with cheap goods than to have a ship half loaded with expensive merchandise.
Rule No 2: Undertake as few profitless voyages as possible Especially avoid voyages with no cargo.
Rule No 3: Always keep ships in good condition. The advantage of an intact ship offsets repair costs
Rule No 4: When purchasing a ship leave enough money to buy goods.
Rule No 5: Always pay taxes on time and keep money for this in reserve.
Rule No 6: During route planning current and weather charts help to save time, and of course time is money.
Rule No 7: Leave only as much money on a ship as required for purchasing goods, wages and repair costs. Surplus money should go to the warehouse or even better to head office.
Rule No 8: Watch political conditions in ports. Unsafe ports mean high risks.
Rule No 9: Keep an eye on the crew and select the crew to suit the ship
Rule No 1O: Do not miss good business.

Where do I purchase the right goods?

This trading simulation is based on the economic system of imperialism (see chapter "Imperialism"), Raw materials are imported from colonies and under developed countries then they are processed. The finished products are in part sold back to the colonies with high profits.

Many products such as fruit, cotton, and tea depend on harvests and are not always readily available. This means you have to be in the right place at the right time. Produce that depend on harvests can be contaminated during a long voyage and become useless. If one has perishable goods on board one should try to reach the port as soon as possible. Produce deteriorates at the same rate for instance fruit spoils much quicker than tea. One should also bear in mind that naturally such goods can get spoiled in a warehouse. The motto should therefore be to get perishable goods to the buyer as quickly as possible.

You can learn about the main export goods of a port using the information panel.

It provides information regarding the goods and their largest quantities kept in storage ports. Thus harvest bound goods are also indicated since they are the main export article. During harvest time when accurately observing the relevant information panels one can be fully informed regarding the relevant harvest times.

With harvest dependent goods it is absolutely necessary to reach the relevant port in good time. In most cases the product is available for two to three months only. Therefore plan your arrival in such a way that you arrive at the right time. You should take into consideration the possible duration of the trip.

At the beginning of the game it is best to restrict yourself to trade in nearby ports, Only with sufficiently large financial reserves, may one dare to venture to such far away markets as Asia.

Second Hand Ships at the Beginning

At the beginning of a career one should, if possible, refrain from having new ships built or buying expensive second hand ships. When purchasing ships make sure that sufficient money is left for the cargo. What is the use of the nicest and fastest clipper if it is used for futile voyages only 

No Risky Freight at the Beginning

Keep your hands off risky freight at the beginning of the game for instance arms deliveries into territories at war. Even when the profit seems tempting the risk of losing perhaps your one and only ship is simply too high. If, on the other hand, you have several ships later on in the game it could turn out to be a most lucrative business even though it may not be exactly honourable, to load arms onto a second-hand ship and sell them at a high profit to a territory at war.

Taking into Consideration the Political State

It is extremely important at all times to keep an eye on the political state of a country. If a country is in a stable state then it is not dangerous to put into its ports and conduct trading. But if there is unrest it may happen occasionally that roaming gangs raid and plunder your warehouse or ship. The cautious trader takes little or no cash at all on voyages to countries where there is unrest. If uprisings are the order of the day in a country it can happen that your warehouse or ship is plundered completely so that you have to put to sea without money or goods. Therefore, without very good reason one should avoid such ports.

Under no circumstances should you put into port in territories where civil or other wars are being waged. If one is unlucky the ship might be sunk without warning or explanation. That is the risk with which arms dealers have to live. It is true of course that a large profit can be made when delivering arms to territories at war but in the worst case the ship complete with cargo is sunk.
Ship to be Loaded Fully at all Times

Always ensure that your ship is fully loaded It is far better to load a ship fully with cheap goods than to half load her with expensive merchandise. Try to make as few empty voyages as possible otherwise your budget will be consumed by running costs. Take only as much money as needed for trading. Surplus money is best kept at head office It is safe there and prevents you from getting embarrassed when loan repayments or taxes become due.

Repairing Old Ships

The older a ship the more expensive the repairs. With the same extent of damage the repair to an old ship costs more than for a new ship. At some time the point will be reached with each ship when the repair costs exceed the purchasing costs. Meaning that repair work is no longer worthwhile. Therefore sell old ships in good time

The Right Crew at The Beginning

To begin with you should not burden yourself with the wages required by a top crew. As in all probability you will own an average ship, therefore you should also hire an average crew. Proven to be reliable and dependable men, they do not cost too much and they are not landlubbers either.

It can happen that you are stuck in a port without money or goods. The crew refuses to work as they are not paid wages. In this case you can dismiss the old crew and hire another one. The new crew expects wages after their first voyage.

This very unkind method will only work, however, when there is no cargo on board. Otherwise one would be forced to sell a part of the cargo at a low price so that after paying the crew one can convince to carry on working

Breaks for the Crew

Since the speed of a ship is considerably affected by the crew you should always keep an eye on the vitality of the crew. If their vitality sags the ship will go slower. Therefore, it is an advantage not to go on stop over long distances but to call at a port in between and let the crew have a short period of rest Thus the men can replenish their strength. vitality is increased and with it the speed of the ship. The time lost in the port is compensated by an increased sailing speed.

Use Breaks for Repairs

Whilst the crew recuperates in the port you can use the time to have your ship overhauled quickly. This is advisable especially after stormy crossings which can often cause severe damage. A damaged ship loses speed and by having her repaired you effectively gain time. When planning the route for long voyages bear in mind that during the voyage you will not be given the possibility to act, meaning that even after heavy storms you cannot simply take your ship to the next dockyard. Therefore, to be on the safe side stop on the way when you are making a long voyage.

Save Repair Costs

It need not always be one of the best known or famous shipyards. Give a small dockyard for instance in Bombay or Kapstadt a chance and you will see that these shipyards carry out the quality of work at a lower price.

Terms of Loans

When taking out a loan you should agree such terms so that the loan expires at the beginning of a year. The bank always settles up on the 31st December. This means that if loans are unpaid by this date and interest for delay to be paid, then bankruptcy procedure is introduced at a time of maturity. If the terms finish at the beginning of the year then one still has time to raise the sum at the end of the year. However, this is not an easy undertaking when one thinks of the very high interest on delay.

Observe Due Tax Dates

Taxes for one year have to be paid at the end of the following year. This means that the tax due is automatically debited from head office accounts. On the 31st. December,

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